Article

18.12.2017

Startups working to ensure smart city air is breathable

Breathe in…breathe out…Sure thing, doctor! But what if the air is polluted? Help is now at hand as Sensio AIR, Clarity, Flow and other startups are working to improve our air quality, and consequently our health, on the road to the Smart City.

Air quality is a major public health issue. According to a report published in the peer-reviewed general medical journal The Lancet on 20 October, polluted air is the cause of 6.5 million deaths worldwide annually. Meanwhile an OECD report informs us that medical costs linked to pollution amounted to $21 billion for 2015 alone and forecasts that they are likely to rise again significantly. And air quality is not only an issue that affects countries notorious for pollution, such as China. In Denmark, for instance, the number of residents of the capital, Copenhagen, dying annually from the consequences of pollution is estimated at 500. The municipal authorities are now measuring air quality in real time, in order to find a solution to the problem. Having the information, and being able to report on it is an important step but you still need to act. So how are smart cities dealing with this problem? And how might City Hall collaborate with startup companies working in this field? They can set targets and draw up strategies which will certainly improve the situation in the long term. But in the meantime, what can city residents do in their own sphere? A number of tech startupers, some of whom L’Atelier talked to at the TechCrunch Disrupt 2017 event held in San Francisco in September and also at the latest HAX (hardware) accelerator DemoDay, also in San Francisco, have been developing solutions.

Startups helping city-dwellers to protect themselves from pollution

According to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, close to 25 million people in the United States are asthmatic. Moreover, a number of studies show that not only can pollution impact very negatively on the respiratory condition of an asthmatic person but it can also bring on asthma in a person who has hitherto been in good health. In order to avoid suffering the symptoms of asthma, the best thing you can do is to breathe pure, clean air.

This is the goal of London-based Sensio AIR. Co-founder and CEO Cyrille Najjar, whom L’Atelier met up with at TechCrunch Disrupt 2017, explained that his app and device are designed for “people who would like to know the level of air quality in their city and also in their home”. But what index should you refer to in order to find out exactly what you are breathing? Air quality assessments are still highly subjective. Points out Cyrille Najjar: “International organisations still haven’t agreed on a threshold for each pollutant, beyond which the air is considered bad for your health. Each country has its own air quality index, and politics plays a major role in deciding thresholds. The scientific community is also still unsure whether long-term, moderate exposure to a pollutant is more dangerous than a short but extreme exposure.”

Against this background, Sensio AIR decided to go for the index most likely to ensure protection for citizens. The London-based startup has a “huge network of sensors” deployed in houses and around the city, and which are also intended for installation in “road vehicles, trains, public buildings, aircraft hangars, and so on,” adds Najjar. This is an excellent way to find out and report accurately on pollution levels and the presence of harmful substances in the air at any given point so as to advise on action and prevention. “We’ll be able to find out the reasons and tell users to be careful to open the windows today, use a dehumidifier etc.,” he foresees. In fact, the main focus of Sensio Air is to help prevent allergies and respiratory ailments. Asthma and allergy sufferers can “register their symptoms on the app. The more often they do so, the more capable [Sensio AIR] will be of predicting in advance when the symptoms are likely to return,” explains Cyrille Najjar. 

Plume Labs is on a very similar mission. Also headquartered in London, the company has developed an app called Air Report, which is intended to help users avoid pollution peak-periods. The idea is that if we cannot improve the air we breathe, we must learn to adapt our activities to the prevailing level of air pollution. In order to work out when you should or should not go jogging or take the kids to the park, you can check on the ambient air pollution at the present moment or during the coming hours just as you would check on the weather forecast. And to enable people to have the most accurate picture possible of what is happening inside the home as well, Plume Labs has now launched a portable sensor called Flow, a sort of wearable device that attaches conveniently to a bag.

In similar vein, the young French tech company Wair, which presented its work at CES 2017, has come up with a scarf that has an integrated pollution mask to enable pedestrians or two-wheeled road users to protect themselves from harmful airborne substances. All these inventions are encouraging people to change their habits so as to breathe more healthily. Nevertheless, in reality their scope is rather limited. While it is true that sensors and devices do have the merit of raising individual awareness of the problems, they certainly cannot all be solved at individual level. Only cities that take a ‘smart’ approach to this issue will be able to have a significant impact on air quality.

In the long run, human health is linked to the health of the Smart City 

Smart cities are applying a range of different strategies to improve their air quality. In Copenhagen, connected sensors deployed by CPH Sense provide real-time information on pollution levels. An equivalent system exists in many other cities, including San Francisco, where the state-wide AirNow website is up and running. Clarity, a startup that graduated from the HAX accelerator, points out that the number of cities taking active steps to measure air quality has nearly tripled in six years, from 1,100 to 3,000. Does this mean people are now waking up to the problem?

In the city of Oakland, to the north of the San Francisco Bay Area, a number of public and private players have been working together in an effort to better understand the problems of air pollution. In June researchers at the University of Texas in Austin, Google Earth Outreach teams and experts from the Environmental Defense Fund published the results of their collaboration with Aclima, a San Francisco-based startup that delivers environmental intelligence through sensor networks. Embedded into Google Street View cars for a period of one year, the Aclima sensor systems showed how far air quality could vary from one city block to another. This type of study demonstrates the need to measure air quality as locally as possible. And this is where fledgling companies such as Clarity Movement Co can help. Its dense sensor network enables it to capture real-time air quality data, which is then directly uploaded into the Cloud. “A second layer of machine learning algorithms is then applied to further refine the data quality through cross-analysis with government reference stations and other local environmental parameters,” explains Meiling Gao, a PhD in Environmental Health Sciences who works as Chief Operating Officer at Clarity.

"Cities often have stations which monitor air quality; the advantage here is that they use standard, highly accurate methods. However, they’re very burdensome, including as regards maintenance, so there aren’t many of them,” reveals Cyrille Najjar, pointing out that the UK only has 150 for the entire country. Moreover, “they’re frequently installed on top of buildings or away from densely populated areas,” underlines Meiling Gao. However, many startup companies have developed a wide range of sensors, often low cost and easy to maintain, which can therefore be used to supplement those installed by city authorities, enabling “an overall view of a city’s air quality,” argues the Sensio AIR CEO.

His company is in fact well-placed to send an alert to the authorities at a particular locality when an unusual situation or a major air problem arises, and make recommendations. “Some cities, for instance, having understood the situation, have then adjusted their urban planning in order to reduce sources of ad hoc pollution,” says Najjar, pointing out: “Traffic lights are a huge source of pollution because this is the point where people re-start their engines. So some have been moved and the road configuration changed so as to protect people most sensitive to air pollution – young children, the ill, the elderly and so on. Setting up a good public transport service along polluted roads has also resulted in a drastic reduction in pollution levels.” Such recommendations might seem to be nothing more than common sense. Nevertheless, city authorities do not always find it easy to put them into practice and frequently run into obstacles when trying to do so.

City dwellers, public and private players: air quality must be everyone’s business

One of the difficulties here is “the inherently multi-sector nature” of monitoring air quality, explains Meiling Gao, pointing out: “The Environmental Protection Agencies that have the regulatory authority to monitor air quality don’t always have the authority to implement policies that can reduce emissions such as vehicle control restrictions in certain city zones or converting municipal fleets to electric vehicles. Therefore, all these stakeholders – environment, energy, planning and transportation – must sit at the table together to solve the problem.”  Moreover, these agencies need to have better quality data available to them if they are going to take the right decisions. “Air pollution problems are complex and driven by different emission sources, the physical environment, climates, and human behaviours. Decision-makers must therefore have localised data to determine the particular variables influencing the air quality, and monitor the effectiveness of their policies in real-time to see what works and what doesn’t,” explains the Clarity COO.

Another fundamental Smart City mission is to raise awareness of key issues among the population, engage with citizens and make them realise that their behaviour can help to bring about real change. Meiling Gao argues that “air quality information should be as common as time, temperature, or traffic warnings displayed to the public.” Moreover, cities need to have dense sensor networks in place that will enable the local authorities “to make available to the public air quality information about the spaces that people commonly inhabit –  schools, parks, public squares, commercial areas –  that is localised and relevant,” she underlines.

On the other hand, ordinary citizens also have a role to play in pushing Smart City authorities to live up to their responsibilities. “Citizens can get involved by first educating themselves on the health risks associated with air pollution and supporting policies that will improve air quality. Initiatives like investments into public transit, green spaces and bike lanes represent the direction we want cities to move towards in terms of creating sustainable and healthy cities. Moreover, increased measurement and more data are critical to quantifying the impacts of a specific policy on air quality,” stresses Meiling Gao.

Air purification a feasible solution?

One of the difficulties here is “the inherently multi-sector nature” of monitoring air quality, explains Meiling Gao, pointing out: “The Environmental Protection Agencies that have the regulatory authority to monitor air quality don’t always have the authority to implement policies that can reduce emissions such as vehicle control restrictions in certain city zones or converting municipal fleets to electric vehicles. Therefore, all these stakeholders – environment, energy, planning and transportation – must sit at the table together to solve the problem.”  Moreover, these agencies need to have better quality data available to them if they are going to take the right decisions. “Air pollution problems are complex and driven by different emission sources, the physical environment, climates, and human behaviours. Decision-makers must therefore have localised data to determine the particular variables influencing the air quality, and monitor the effectiveness of their policies in real-time to see what works and what doesn’t,” explains the Clarity COO.

Another fundamental Smart City mission is to raise awareness of key issues among the population, engage with citizens and make them realise that their behaviour can help to bring about real change. Meiling Gao argues that “air quality information should be as common as time, temperature, or traffic warnings displayed to the public.” Moreover, cities need to have dense sensor networks in place that will enable the local authorities “to make available to the public air quality information about the spaces that people commonly inhabit –  schools, parks, public squares, commercial areas –  that is localised and relevant,” she underlines.

On the other hand, ordinary citizens also have a role to play in pushing Smart City authorities to live up to their responsibilities. “Citizens can get involved by first educating themselves on the health risks associated with air pollution and supporting policies that will improve air quality. Initiatives like investments into public transit, green spaces and bike lanes represent the direction we want cities to move towards in terms of creating sustainable and healthy cities. Moreover, increased measurement and more data are critical to quantifying the impacts of a specific policy on air quality,” stresses Meiling Gao.

Air purification a feasible solution?

Source : L’Atelier
Article

05.11.2017

Which companies are behind the Smart City Awards?

At the end of January, Agoria recognised several Belgian cities at its Smart Cities Awards. Here, we take the opportunity to revisit the companies that were partners in this essential transformation.

"According to our estimates, the population of the Brussels-Capital region will increase by 35% by 2050. Our cities will have to do things differently if they want to remain viable for their citizens," explains the CEO of Agoria, Marc Lambotte.

At the end of January, the federation's Smart City Awards once again recognised six cities and municipalities, three in Flanders and three in Wallonia, from 18 candidates from all over Belgium. We have identified four of them.

Agoria Smart City Award Mobility: Kortrijk with Shop&Go

With Shop&Go, the city uses smart systems to manage its parking spaces. Everyone is entitled to 30 minutes of free parking, including in underground car parks, thanks to a number plate recognition system that is both ticket and cash free. There is also a mobile app that lets you book a parking space in advance. This is a first in Europe, and uses the expertise of the company LinkID in secure mobile payment services.

Agoria Smart City Award Living in Wallonia: Houffalize with Letsgocity

The municipality implemented use of the Belgian mobile app Letsgocity for residents and visiting tourists. It allows them to connect with local services and retailers and obtain useful information via geolocation.

Agoria Smart City Award Living in Flanders: Hasselt with CitizenLab

Hasselt turned to a co-creation system to bring the Kapermolen municipal park back to life. To achieve this, the city developed a mobile app which was set up in cooperation with CitizenLab. Through the app, residents have been able to put forward and discuss ideas. The commercial partner, Citizenlab, used cloud software to develop a platform in Belgium that is ready to use and can be fully customised in over 20 languages.

Agoria Smart City Award Digital: Brugelette with Orange and Cropland

Brugelette wanted to collect "objective, reliable and comprehensive data on the road traffic around Pairi Daiza" in order to develop an effective traffic plan. It achieved this aim thanks to a project implemented by the Public Service of Wallonia. This approach based on Big Data and an analysis of several months of mobile telephone data enabled a more precise picture of the road traffic to be compiled, as Orange Belgium's CEO Michaël Trabbia confirms:

"Working in partnership with Cropland, we were able to create six zones around Pairi Daiza to map traffic using data from the pylons at Ath and Mons. This is a great example of the power of digital tools based on Big Data working for smart cities."

To see all projects and for the latest information on this subject, visit the Agoria Smart City Awards website.

Article

15.06.2017

Banks and Smart Cities: a shared destiny

The way smart cities look and operate is going to depend on how citizens, businesses and public authorities fit together. One of the crucial drivers all these three have in common are banks.

The techno-economic challenges facing cities are huge, with multiple issues linked to the financing of capital investments, the shape of the markets, industrial restructuring, future employment, innovation, and the way major cities relate to the wider world. We see for example how a highly active interconnected urban network of entrepreneurial ecosystems is being forged, San Francisco, Seoul, Paris, Shenzhen and Tel Aviv being leading examples. Will this hamper the development of newer cities, or lead to the decline of cities that are less active on the networking front?

Social issues are also key here. We are likely to see new urban lifestyles, growing inequality and, further down the line, types of society that are very different from those we know today. You only need to compare the lifestyle of a young Silicon Valley engineer with that of a retired person in Vienna to see how digital tools and systems can unite people in terms of the way they do things, but may very well divide them as regards cultural norms and generational codes. And at the end of the day, the climate and wider environmental issues are simply inescapable. We are going to need a complete reworking of our economic models and systems, which are to a very large extent a legacy of the last industrial revolution. For each of these major challenges the banks have a key role to play.

The banking sector: traditional partner to cities

Capital and liquidity flows between socio-economic players underpin human initiatives, financing basic infrastructure and development programmes and thus helping to set up the urban ecosystems we tend to take for granted today. The financial world and its epitome – the bank – are interwoven with all strata of society and all geographical levels: cities, countries, regions and transnational spaces. The banking sector is one of the major counterparts to cities and their component entities, from individual people to companies to the community as a whole. Banks finance, lend, support and also assess; they are closely bound up with progress. They operate at the heart of the urban space and are relationship-enablers in a similar way to the post office, the town hall, the café and the pub.

In parallel, banks are stepping up their digital capabilities in response to increasing demands in western countries for efficiency and convenience, and for greater inclusiveness and access to financing in the emerging countries. Banks are now seeing the constant advent of new means of financing and risk management – including for instance crowdfunding and a trend towards ‘green financing’ – and are working to integrate them into their existing business models. Moreover, they help their customers and partners to follow the same path, bridging the gap between people’s and companies’ new needs and the technology that can provide solutions.

Only one role now for banks in the city?

Banks have a history of being strategic partners to sovereign states, companies, entrepreneurs and private citizens. By definition and by vocation, banks have always played a part in promoting ventures in a variety of fields such as infrastructure development, energy, education and healthcare. However, they now appear to have been straitjacketed into the single, limited role of being a provider of funds. It is striking to see that in cities today banks are usually viewed in their narrow function of financier, or sometimes perhaps a rather irritating or fractious risk manager for people’s individual or collective projects. But their range is wider than that. Now that we are rethinking our urban spaces, we could certainly make more use of the range of skills possessed by banks when it comes to planning, business intelligence, data analysis, and as an enabler of social links in neighbourhoods. Banks need to think about how they can optimise their skills in the urban space, combining their traditional strengths of transparency, pragmatism and rational planning.

Banking + data in the service of the urban space

With its millions of banking records, a financial institution is very much a part of the economic life of a city. A bank would for example be in a position to draw up a set of indicators on local merchants’ offerings – which would be very useful information for consumers – footfall statistics, the housing market, or even job vacancies. As financial intermediaries, banks could also become leading observatories for all kinds of business transactions, reporting on the relationships and ‘balance of power’ between various local players and entities and drawing up detailed maps for residents, elected representatives and companies that have set up in its area. This is in fact a priority field for the global digital giants, especially the Silicon Valley firms. And banks have traditionally enjoyed an enviable strategic advantage in this regard.

… but first and foremost, to serve citizens

Now that digital technology is transforming the way we live, is it perhaps time to talk about the city of the future in terms of a smart, digital space? Beyond the terminological spats, we should now be putting all these technologies and techniques at the service of people, the very point where the worlds of digital technology and information converge. Under this paradigm, banks will be able to supply citizens with high-quality information to the benefit of both individuals and communities.

And quite apart from the valuable guidance – on getting around, consumption patterns, etc. – that data and the algorithms used to process them provide, people living in cities are increasingly keen to live different lives – unplanned, less regulated, in-the-moment lives. Convenience and the experience are key here. And here once again, banks have a role to play.

Banks already enjoy a culture of trust, confidentiality, compliance and experience in handling and processing data in a highly-regulated environment. It will be to everyone’s benefit, bearing in mind the need for responsible conduct and sharing of resources, if banks take a fresh look at their – already major – involvement in the ever-accelerating changes taking place in the urban space.

Source: L’Atelier BNP Paribas
Article

09.10.2017

La voiture autonome offre une seconde jeunesse aux services de location

Traditionele verhuurbedrijven en start-ups van nieuwe technologieën slaan de handen in elkaar om de zelfrijdende auto op grote schaal te lanceren.

Om zo goed mogelijk tegemoet te komen aan de logica van de smart city, moeten ze evenwel het goede model kiezen.

Onlangs gingen Alphabet en Apple allebei partnerships aan met autoverhuurbedrijven in het kader van hun respectieve programma's voor zelfrijdende auto's. Waymo, de divisie van Alphabet die zich toelegt op auto's zonder bestuurder, ging een samenwerking aan met Avis, leider in de verhuur voor professionele doeleinden op de Amerikaanse markt. Volgens de voorwaarden van de overeenkomst zal Avis instaan voor het beheer van het park zelfrijdende auto's die Waymo ontwikkelt in Phoenix, Arizona. Het bedrijf ging in april van start met een pilootproject. Het bood vrijwilligers de mogelijkheid om gratis in de wagens te stappen om naar de bestemming van hun keuze te rijden. In ruil werden ze gevraagd om hun bevindingen aan het bedrijf mee te delen.

Partnership Waymo – Chrysler

De auto's die Waymo ontwikkelt zijn ook het resultaat van een partnership dat in mei werd aangegaan met de Amerikaanse autoconstructeur Chrysler. Het gaat om Pacifica-minivans, die het volledige eigendom van Waymo blijven. Avis staat in voor het stockeren en onderhouden van de voertuigen, waarvoor het zijn al bestaande infrastructuur gebruikt. De niet-exclusieve overeenkomst is verschillende jaren geldig en houdt geen financiële voorwaarden in. Apple van zijn kant ging een partnership aan met Hertz, de nummer twee in Amerikaanse autoverhuur qua omzet, voertuigen en verhuursites. Door de overeenkomst kan Apple auto's van het model Lexus RX450h huren om zijn software voor autonome besturing te testen. Er rijden al zowat zes wagens met deze software in de omgeving van San Francisco.

De combinatie van software en materiaal 

Het kan misschien verrassend lijken dat twee bedrijven, die pionier zijn in nieuwe technologieën, zich associëren met vertegenwoordigers van een sector die weinig recente veranderingen kende. De verklaring ligt in het feit dat Alphabet en Apple allebei veel meer interesse hebben voor de ontwikkeling van de technologie en van de software dan voor het dagelijkse beheer van een park zelfrijdende auto's, een sector waarin de twee bedrijven strikt genomen geen ervaring hebben. "Nu ons stijgende aantal zelfrijdende wagens ter beschikking worden gesteld van het publiek, moeten we ze onderhouden en schoonmaken zodat ze op elk moment van de dag of nacht kunnen worden gebruikt", zo verklaarde John Krafcik, CEO van Waymo, in een persbericht. "Met duizenden verhuursites wereldwijd kan Avis Budget Group ons helpen om deze technologie voor meer mensen en op meer plaatsen toegankelijk te maken." Hoewel Apple aanvankelijk zijn eigen auto wilde bouwen. Liet Tim Cook, CEO van Apple, in Juni in een interview met het Amerikaanse medium Bloomberg al weten dat ze uiteindelijk toch besloten hebben om hun inspanningen te focussen op kunstmatige-intelligentiesoftware. "We focussen op de autonome systemen. Ze vormen de kern van onze artificiële-intelligentieprogramma's. Het is ongetwijfeld een van de moeilijkst te realiseren zaken."

Naast hun expertise in het beheer van een groot wagenpark brengen de verhuurbedrijven ook hun klanten, financiële activa en infrastructuren in, die de nieuwetechnologiereuzen de middelen kunnen geven om hun ambities waar te maken. Zo telt Avis wereldwijd maar liefst 11.000 verhuursites, waarop Waymo voortaan kan rekenen om zijn voertuigen te onderhouden in het kader van de toekomstige expansieprojecten. Wanneer ze deze infrastructuur niet zelf moeten bouwen of het personeel om er te werken niet moeten rekruteren, kan dat een flinke duw in de rug betekenen op deze super concurrentiële markt. Volgens John Krafcik zullen de zelfrijdende en gedeelde auto's gemiddeld zes keer meer rijden dan individuele auto's: onderhoud is dus een kritiek punt in deze strijd. Nog een belangrijk gegeven: in 2013 kocht Avis Zipcar, een start-up die ook gespecialiseerd is in verhuur, maar die een flexibeler en innovatiever businessmodel heeft dat veel succes kent bij een jong publiek. Met een miljoen Zipcar-gebruikers, onder wie flink wat jonge technofielen, en de Avis-klanten, met een traditioneler profiel, heeft Waymo over toegang tot een groot publiek. Tot slot verhuren Avis en Hertz niet enkel aan particulieren: ze verhuren ook wagenparken aan bedrijven. Zo hebben ze het vermogen om het volledige wagenpark dat een professional gebruikt om te vormen naar autonome besturing. Dat is een doorslaggevend argument voor de actoren die zich inzetten om deze technologie te promoten. 

Avis, Hertz en consorten hebben op hun beurt alles te winnen door het aangaan van dergelijke partnerships. Ze hadden immers zwaar te lijden onder de komst van innovatieve actoren op de markt, zoals Zipcar en Getaround, gecombineerd met de sterke groei van bedrijven die mobiliteit op verzoek aanbieden, zoals Lyft en Uber: zo daalde het aandeel van Hertz het voorbije jaar bijvoorbeeld 75 procent in waarde. De traditionele verhuurbedrijven krijgen nu de kans om terug in de running te komen en een plaats te veroveren in deze nieuwe sector, die de automarkt duurzaam belooft te veranderen.

Op naar zelfrijdende, elektrische en gedeelde taxi's?

Het autolandschap is trouwens volledig aan het hervormen. Aangezien voorlopig geen van de actoren over alle troeven beschikt om de leider te zijn, zien we een spel van allianties, waar sommigen hun softwarekennis inbrengen, anderen hun knowhow als constructeur en nog anderen hun capaciteit om grote wagenparken te beheren. Zo associeerde Waymo zich ook met Honda en Lyft. Het laatste bedrijf sloot dan weer een overeenkomst met General Motors, dat zelf afdelingen heeft die zich toeleggen op zelfrijdende wagens en autodelen, en met Nutonomy, een start-up die gespecialiseerd is in het ontwerpen van software voor auto's zonder bestuurders. De kleine start-up Getaround, die een verhuurmodel van particulier tot particulier aanbiedt, werkt op zijn beurt samen met Toyota, dat ook een eigen afdeling voor zelfrijdende auto's heeft. Te midden van al deze allianties zien we verschillende mogelijke modellen opduiken. 

Een eerste optie zou erin bestaan het volledige wagenpark van de verhuurbedrijven om te zetten in zelfrijdende auto's, die min of meer op dezelfde manier als vroeger zouden functioneren, maar met meer flexibiliteit, het gebruik van apps om een voertuig te bestellen enz. Dit model is vrij eenvoudig in te voeren maar toch niet het interessantste, omdat het geen optimalisering van de activa mogelijk maakt. Als iedereen een individuele zelfrijdende auto voor eigen gebruik huurt, dan blijft de winst in termen van minder verkeer, minder vervuiling en meer beschikbare openbare ruimte beperkt. Voor een maximale efficiëntie moeten we weg van het idee dat een individu helemaal alleen een auto inneemt met plaats voor vier of vijf mensen en van auto's die werkloos voor gebouwen op hun eigenaars staan te wachten. Een tweede oplossing, die complexer maar veel efficiënter is, bestaat erin alle wagens die in een stedelijke omgeving actief zijn om te vormen in een ecosysteem van elektrische, zelfrijdende en gedeelde taxi's die iedereen via een app kan bestellen, die permanent rondrijden en die worden beheerd en onderhouden door de verhuurbedrijven. We staan allang achter de verdiensten van zo een ecosysteem, dat ons zou toelaten de essentie van de technologie van de autonome besturing te benutten. Naast de privéactoren moeten ook de openbare actoren zich echter engageren om deze toekomst mogelijk te maken. De steden New York en Los Angeles kondigden onlangs aan dat ze werken aan een dergelijk ecosysteem, waarmee ze een stap in de goede richting zetten.

Bron: L’Atelier
Article

10.10.2017

De negen criteria van de smart city in 2020

Wat maakt een stad intelligent? Negen criteria, volgens een recent onderzoek van het onderzoeks- en adviesbureau Frost & Sullivan.

Smart city. Iedereen heeft het erover. Alle steden willen het zijn. Maar wat houdt het precies in? Het onderzoeks- en adviesbureau Frost & Sullivan definieert het concept in een recent onderzoek. Negen criteria zullen de intelligente stad in 2020 kenmerken. Zo moet de stad een intelligent energienet ontwikkelen en bijvoorbeeld smart grids gebruiken. De gebouwen zijn er groen, dankzij het BIM of andere technieken die een verlaging van de energiefactuur mogelijk maken, zoals de speciale bekleding die de temperatuur verlaagt in de straten van Los Angeles. Mobiliteit staat voorop in de innovatie dankzij multimodale vervoerssystemen en voertuigen van de toekomst, die zelfrijdend en elektrisch zijn. De smart city is technologisch en geconnecteerd. Er gaat ook veel aandacht naar de gezondheid en dat via een hogere observatie door wearables en de gegevens die worden verzameld. Ook de infrastructuur is intelligent, de wegen zijn geconnecteerd en het afval wordt technologisch beheerd. De stadsbesturen en de regering moedigen smart city-initiatieven aan. De technologie zorgt ook voor meer veiligheid in de stad. Tot slot worden de burgers actief betrokken bij de smart city, ze zijn proactief en hebben een juiste levenswijze, met respect voor hun stad. De auteurs van het onderzoek zeggen dat een stad aan minstens vijf van deze criteria moet beantwoorden om als smart city bestempeld te worden. Momenteel is dat voor geen enkele stad het geval – tenminste niet voor de volledige stad. Tegen 2026 kunnen er echter wel verschillende intelligente steden opduiken, waaronder Parijs, San Francisco of Singapore. Tegen die tijd kan de wereldwijde markt van de intelligente stad exploderen en stijgen van 900 miljard dollar in 2016 tot 1,5 biljoen dollar in 2020. Smart city is meer dan een concept, het is een trend die werkelijkheid wordt.

 Bron: L’Atelier

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