L’économie connaît des hésitations. Ce qui n’empêche pas les entreprises belges d’investir en 2015, à nouveau près d’un milliard d’EUR en formations formelles. Avec cependant des différences entre régions, secteurs et sexes.
Économies, restructurations, licenciements, incertitude… Les temps sont durs pour l’économie belge. Pourtant, le volume des formations n’en laisse rien paraître. On y pratique le ‘business as usual’. Bisnode, expert en données et analyses (www.bisnode.be), a étudié de près les bilans sociaux de 17.000 entreprises belges qui représentent ensemble environ 1,2 million d’employés. Bisnode a ainsi pu évaluer leur niveau d’investissement en formations formelles (des cours et des stages généralement dispensés par des enseignants externes). Selon Bart Vanbaelen, business unit manager B2B de Bisnode Belgique, le résultat est plutôt satisfaisant.
« Si l’on totalise les investissements de ces 17.000 entreprises en 2015, on atteint presque le milliard d’euros dédié à la formation du personnel. Chiffre qui reste tout à fait dans la ligne de 2013 et de 2014. Au sein des entreprises qui s’engagent sur la voie du L&D (Learning and Development), plus de la moitié des employés répondent positivement à l’offre. En 2015, près de 785.000 personnes ont suivi une ou plusieurs formations. »
L’analyse révèle que ce sont les plus grandes entreprises qui ont consacré le plus de fonds à la formation. Les 191 plus grosses sociétés (des entreprises de plus de 1.000 employés) ont dépensé 43 % du total du budget, pour 39 % de personnes qui ont suivi des cours. Les entreprises dont la taille est légèrement inférieure – de 500 à 1.000 employés – ont organisé les formations les plus coûteuses.
Nombre de grandes entreprises ont leur siège à Bruxelles. On s’attend donc en toute logique que ce soit la capitale qui détienne la moyenne la plus élevée en dépenses de formation, ce que confirment les chiffres. Les sociétés bruxelloises dépensent en formation une moyenne de 1.893 EUR pour un homme et de 1.173 EUR pour une femme. En Wallonie, la dépense s’élève respectivement à 1.411 EUR et 919 EUR, et en Flandre, elle est respectivement de 1.360 EUR et de 858 EUR.
Bart Vanbaelen explique :
« En Wallonie, les chiffres sont un peu biaisés par le Brabant wallon, une province qui se porte économiquement très bien et compte quelques-unes des toute grandes entreprises. Le coût moyen d’une formation est encore bien plus élevé qu’à Bruxelles : 1.861 EUR, par rapport à 1.586 EUR. Dans les autres provinces wallonnes, le coût moyen est comparable à celui des provinces flamandes. Autre fait remarquable : c’est précisément à Bruxelles que les plus petites entreprises investissent le moins dans la formation. Plus de 60 % des employés ayant suivi une formation dans la capitale travaillent dans une société qui compte plus de 1.000 employés. »
(Source : Bisnode)
La conclusion la plus remarquable de l’étude de Bisnode porte sur la différence entre employés masculins et féminins. 68 % des femmes suivent une formation (ce qui représente une nette augmentation par rapport à 2013 et 2014), tandis que les hommes ne sont que 58 % à le faire (en léger recul). Par ailleurs, les formations suivies par les hommes sont nettement plus longues et plus chères que celles des femmes. Si les dames suivent en moyenne 22 heures de formation par année, les messieurs en suivent 27. Pour les femmes, le tarif est de 952 EUR, pour les hommes, de 1.509 EUR, ce qui représente une différence de 37 %.
Bart Vanbaelen déclare :
« Il est probable que ces écarts s’expliquent par les différences observées entre secteurs. Ceux qui permettent majoritairement aux femmes de suivre des formations sont les soins et la santé. La plupart du temps, les sociétés souhaitent proposer des formations, mais en général elles ne disposent pas de fonds suffisants pour acheter des programmes coûteux. Compte tenu du vieillissement de la population, il s’agit essentiellement de secteurs en pleine croissance, ce qui pourrait expliquer pourquoi le nombre d’heures augmente ces dernières années. Les sociétés au sein desquelles les hommes sont nombreux à se former relèvent surtout de secteurs comme le transport, la chimie, ou même le commerce. Les salaires y sont en moyenne plus élevés et les formations plus techniques. Par exemple, le secteur « fabrication de produits chimiques » consacre à la formation un budget moyen annuel de 1.880 EUR ».
(Source : Bisnode)
La conclusion générale de cette étude le souligne, malgré les conditions difficiles, les entreprises belges continuent à investir dans la formation.
Bart Vanbaelen conclut :
« Non seulement c’est un fait remarquable, mais c’est aussi nécessaire. Pour la chasse aux talents (war for talent) d’une part, car les employés plus jeunes estiment qu’il est parfaitement normal de continuer à apprendre et à se développer. Mais aussi pour la rétention des talents (care for talent). Quand une entreprise offre à ses collaborateurs l’occasion de se former, ces derniers se sentent mieux valorisés et accomplissent leur travail avec plus d’expertise et de motivation ».
How much Belgian businesses invest in trainings: mixed results
Belgian companies are not scaling down their investment in training. But how are we faring in comparison to other countries? The answer to that question varies from one study to another.
Life-long learning and continuing training are Europe's leverage in equipping its citizens for the jobs of tomorrow. There are three European sources available for comparing efforts in the various EU countries.
- CVTS (Continuing Vocational Training Survey) = a survey conducted every five years among employers with more than ten employees in industry and the commercial services sectors
- EWCS (European Working Conditions Survey) = a socio-economic survey of people in employment
- LFS (Labour Force Survey) = a socio-economic survey of households
All three studies collect information about employees' participation in training courses, among other data.
- According to the CVTS (the last edition dates from 2010), around 52% of all employees have received a formal training.
- The most recent EWCS survey (also from 2010) concludes that the average participation rate stands at 39%.
- In the LFS survey (last conducted in 2015), a figure of 7.4% is given.
The differences are huge. This is largely due to the set-up and methodology of the studies, explains Wouter Vanderbiesen (Steunpunt Werk, KULeuven).
“The CVTS is a voluntary company survey that collects information on training offers. Companies with a focus on training are probably more likely to participate in such a survey. The reference periods are different, too: one year for the CVTS and the EWCS, and one month for the LFS.”
So there is a reason behind the major differences between the three sources. A bigger problem is that comparisons with other countries produce rather erratic results, too.
- According to the CVTS, Belgium is a top performer in Europe when it comes to training, with a participation rate of 52%: the European average is 38%. Only the Czech Republic is performing better. We are also ahead of the traditionally strong contenders in the field of training, such as the Scandinavian countries.
- With a score of 39%, the EWCS study puts us at around the European average of 37%.
- The LFS score (2015) of 7.4% is rather poor in comparison to the EU15 average of 17.4% (see table below).
Wouter Vanderbiesen:”If you ask companies, like in the CVTS, our country seems to perform much better than when you survey employees, like in the EWCS or LFS. The latter two sources are the most closely aligned when it comes to their rankings of the various EU countries: countries that score highly in the LFS usually also score highly in the EWCS. So whereabouts does Belgium come in the ranking? I expect the truth is somewhere between the two extremes: around the European average.”
Training investment versus labour costsIn addition to participation in training, the Continuing Vocational Training Survey also looks at the financial investments companies make in training their employees. In 2010, these costs were equivalent to 2.4% of total labour costs. This includes not only direct costs (such as payments to training providers), but also indirect costs such as the labour costs for employees taking a training course during working hours. In Belgium, the latter accounts for almost two thirds of all investment in training. In our neighbouring countries, it's a little less. The European average is 50/50. One of the reasons for this is the high labour costs in Belgium.
Factoring: A success story
Factoring is on the rise: last year this market reached a total turnover of 61.2 billion euros, resulting in an impressive growth of as much as 10.5%. BNP Paribas Fortis' market share rose slightly from 38.4% to 38.6%.
Ignace De Keyser, Sales & Marketing Director at BNP Paribas Fortis Factor, explains the increasing success of factoring.
How is the Belgian factoring market developing? Do you see any marked trends?
‘The growth figures speak for themselves: factoring is clearly becoming more important. Factoring used to be more of a support mechanism, but today it is a mainstream solution easily competing with banking solutions. This obviously has to do with the liquidity crisis and the successive measures.
Factoring is not entirely comparable with a banking solution, of course. Factoring offers companies more than just flexible financing. The factoring range also includes credit management and hedging, although these services have receded into the background somewhat in recent years. Factoring owes much of its popularity to the financing aspect.
The lingering economic uncertainty, the search for new markets and the realisation that 'too big to fail' is really an illusion are forcing companies to protect their low margins. More and more entrepreneurs are adding this element to their factoring solution.
Credit management outsourcing is also on the rise again. Many larger companies had already professionalised this area, but are now outsourcing all non-core business as much as they can.
BNP Paribas Fortis Factor has always held this service close to its heart. Our customers can therefore rely on a specialised team that guarantees continuous follow-up both here and abroad.’
What are the reasons for this change of attitude?
‘There are two main reasons for it. First and foremost, our services and operating methods have changed radically in the last few years. That is largely due to the development of new communication technology. Some years ago, all communication was still by mail or fax, bills had to be processed and entered in the system manually, and reporting was also done manually. In brief, it was a time-consuming process with more potential for mistakes.
Nowadays the vast majority of our customers transfer all their data electronically, directly from their accounting program. As a result, the entire process – from the customer drawing up bills to receipt of the funds – takes two days at most, depending on the quality of the file sent to us. And there is much less risk of mistakes. Thanks to these innovations, factoring is now much quicker and more straightforward than before, which has also meant a reduction in the cost for our customers.
Secondly, there has been a major change in the target group and the use of factoring. In the past, banks suggested factoring to customers that had become too risky to finance using conventional loans. In other words, it was a last-ditch form of short-term funding that provided the bank with much greater protection in the event of the customer going bankrupt. Consequently, some companies were more or less forced to use factoring and were not overly pleased with it. Add to that the administrative switch and it's easy to see why factoring got a bad reputation. The most oft quoted argument against factoring was fear of what customers would think.
The turnaround came some years ago with the introduction of the new Basel II standards, whereby banks were required to maintain a capital buffer to cover their risky activities. The buffer for factoring was significantly lower than for conventional loans, making factoring a more attractive option for banks. As a result, they started to offer factoring to customers with a good credit rating, who in turn began to see its potential.
On the back of these two changes, an increasing number of companies are using factoring to boost their working capital, and for a longer period. Twenty years ago a customer would be with us for an average of two to three years, but that has since doubled.’
Will Basel III intensify this trend?
‘There can be no two ways about it. Basel III has made banks subject to even stricter capital requirements, which can only make factoring a more attractive option. What is more, the new standards focus much more on liquidity. In this connection, the operational relationship between the bank and the customer plays an important role: if a company entrusts its cash flows to a bank, it can regard the risk of loss of liquidity as low and maintain a lower liquidity buffer. In this respect, too, factoring hits the mark.’
So what makes factoring such an attractive option for companies?
‘A financially sound company can benefit by outsourcing the administration of its accounts receivable to us. While we monitor the receivables, the customer can focus entirely on business. And in the vast majority of cases, we are able to collect amounts due 25% more quickly than the customer. Thanks to our experience – we know all of the most commonly used excuses – and reputation, we can encourage debtors to honour their payment terms. After all, no-one wants a financial partner to think that they are an unreliable payer.
More importantly still, factoring is a more flexible form of funding than conventional bank loans. That is because funding develops in line with turnover: if turnover increases, the company issues more invoices, and funding rises too. Factoring is therefore a very attractive option for developing companies.
The "off-balance-sheet" aspect of factoring is another deciding factor. This not only improves the company’s balance ratios, but also has a positive impact on the cost and availability of the company's other credit facilities.’
Is this typically a product used to cope with a crisis?
‘No, definitely not. Factoring is especially popular when economic conditions are volatile, which means periods of crisis and of growth. In such circumstances, it is essential for companies to be able to convert their receivables to cash quickly. This is less important when the economy is stable or less volatile.
That is why the factoring market expanded so considerably in 2009-10, when the financial and economic crisis was at its worst. Because debtors were taking longer to pay, many companies had to contend with cash-flow problems. Quicker collection of bills can go a long way towards reducing that pressure. That is particularly so if you combine quicker collection with a package that includes cover against the non-payment risk and debtor default.
However, factoring is also an attractive option when the economy is improving. If companies receive more orders and turnover increases, there can be cash-flow problems because their working capital need is higher. So factoring is a highly flexible means of funding the working capital requirement based on increasing receivables.
It is not therefore a product just for times of crisis; it can be beneficial for any company. And the best way to prove the effect of factoring is simply to try it out.’
The challenges facing the Belgian transport sector
In this article, we take a closer look at the transport and logistics sector in our country. How has it been doing over the past few years? What trends are likely to take shape? And what is the future of the Belgian transport industry?
Before we start our analysis, it is important to point out that the Belgian transport sector forms part of a broader European and global transport system. That is both a curse and a blessing. Today, past European decisions are still a major determining factor when it comes to the 'health' of the Belgian transport industry. The free movement of goods and persons, a European priority since the early 90s, not only brought with it opportunities, but also immediately became one of the greatest threats to Western European carriers. And that is just one of the challenges the sector faces.
'To give an example, there's the rise of the internet and mobile telephony, which have digitalised the economy. That had consequences for working methods in transport and logistics, but the advent of e-commerce has also had an impact on demand for transportation. On the other hand, a sort of 'global village' has been created. In a way, distance no longer matters, and the exponential growth of container transport is a direct result of that,' says Jean-Marie Becker.
As CEO of MMM Business Media, he has been following the transport and logistics sector in Belgium and abroad for over 30 years. He is also regarded by the Belgian transport industry as someone with a real understanding of the sector.
Consequences for logistics and transport
The aforementioned trends have certainly not been without consequences. National importers and warehouses have been replaced by EDCs and RDCs – European and regional distribution centres – which service several countries at once.
'Moreover, internationally active companies decided to concentrate their production units in Europe, and preferred to seek new opportunities where higher profits awaited them. Here I'm talking about the BRICS and PECO countries. That of course has resulted in a reorganisation of the logistics landscape,' says Jean-Marie Becker.
The reason behind Belgium's continuing key role in this new economic landscape is its geographical location. In addition, our ports still have a decisive part to play, as shipping companies only allow their ships to stop over in a small number of ports for profit-related reasons. Antwerp and Zeebrugge, but also Rotterdam, do particularly well, and as a result our country has been able to get its hands on a piece of the transport and logistics pie.
'A prime example of this is that Antwerp is actually the largest French port if you look at the amount of traffic heading for France,' Jean-Marie Becker stresses. ‘A country such as Belgium must continue to reap the benefits of its excellent geographical position, which acts as a weapon in the fight against the threats looming over the world of transport.’
Adaptability is crucial
In the changing landscape of the transport sector, hauliers must try and keep their heads above water. But how? By making their strengths a specialisation, or by keeping up with developments in the economy and transforming themselves from a haulier into a logistics provider, a 3PL or even a 4PL company.
The terms 3PL and 4PL have come increasingly into fashion in logistics over the past few years. 3PL stands for 'third party logistics', and 4PL of course stands for 'fourth party logistics'. But before we look at the difference between them, lets go back to basics: specialisation in 1PL, pure transportation. A specialisation that is becoming more and more difficult as time goes on. This is a result of, among other things, increasing competition from companies in the former Eastern Bloc countries (or branches of Belgian companies that are based there).
Focusing on particular niches may provide a solution, but many carriers have opted to expand their activities further, providing warehousing services to their customers on top of transportation services (2PL).
'It is a way of bringing added value to your role as a haulier that allows you to distinguish yourself from pure carriers. But if you are really looking for added value, then it's 3PL companies you want, as they also provide logistics alongside haulage and warehousing. By also offering logistics services, these companies gain more control over the supply chain of their customers, and strengthen their position at the negotiating table,' explains Jean-Marie Becker.
However, 3PL companies ultimately remain contractors, as the shipping company for which they work continues to call the shots when it comes to strategy. A 3PL company thus focuses on activities at operational and tactical level in order to squeeze as much profit as possible out of its own assets (trucks and warehouses).
A bridge too far?
The next step in this trend is the arrival of 4PL companies. These companies become real chain managers. That also means that they often do not use their own equipment, but still seek to provide the best solution for their customer's supply chain. A 4PL company will then call upon partners to implement the solutions it comes up with, and therefore often turns to 3PL companies, which take care of transportation, storage, value-added logistics, planning and even supply management. For most Belgian companies, however, this far-reaching development is a bridge too far: they mostly tend towards 3PL specialisation.
'I believe that the future lies with family-run 3PL firms, along the lines of Dachser, Kuehne + Nagel and Galliker,' admits Jean-Marie Becker.
According to him, the future is more likely to lie with them than with large groups in the hands of equity funds. That is because these funds buy and sell companies when this is of most financial benefit, and are therefore a much less reliable partner for shipping companies and production companies.
Niches: a starting point
Regardless of the changes that transport companies have undergone in recent years, the quest for market niches remains a must. No matter how big or small the company.
'There are plenty of examples of companies who have successfully focused their activities on a particular market. A fine example of this is the relatively small company Esser & Lennertz from Bilstain, near Liege, which specialises in wholesale trade in sand and gravel, and has also expanded to become an internationally active construction materials haulage company. However, medium-sized enterprises can also find success on niche markets, like in the case of Havart, which grew from a crane specialist to a logistics service provider for all heavy goods,' says Jean-Marie Becker.
Not just for the small fry
Today, though, even the big players recognise the importance of niche markets. Katoen Natie, for example, is developing no fewer than 17 different business lines, in which it positions itself as a specialist in particular niches.
'That means art, automotive, petrochemicals, port operations, process engineering...the list goes on. But they're not the only ones taking that approach: Jost Group is now looking to 'split' into the divisions Europe & Maghreb, Integrated & Customised Logistics and Air & Sea Freight,' continues Jean-Marie Becker.
Another big name in the Belgian transport sector that has understood very well that versatility and specific niche specialties can go hand in hand is TDL Group, which has simultaneously formed the divisions Fresh Logistics, Building Logistics, Dedicated Logistics, Pharma Logistics and Coldwayexpress, making it both a specialist and a generalist.
Is e-commerce resulting in an overhaul of the sector?
Trade conditions have changed dramatically since the advent of the internet. Small retailers were suddenly in direct competition with global traders. Consumers no longer just purchase goods from the shop on the corner, but also from other (and sometimes distant) countries. This trend is the driving force behind transport and logistics worldwide.
It goes without saying that developments as drastic as e-commerce, for that is the phenomenon described above, lead to the emergence of specialists focused on providing logistics solutions for that phenomenon.
'We are not only seeing logistics providers becoming e-commerce specialists for deliveries coming into Belgium, like in the case of PFS Web, but also companies working in the opposite direction,' notes Jean-Marie Becker.
He is referring in the latter case to Sedis, a company from the west of Wallonia that is a prime example of such a development. This company has effectively responded to the fact that the middle class in China has become more well off and is happy to splash some cash. People love the kinds of products available from Belgium, and Sedis makes sure that everything they order arrives safely at their front door in China. Euroterminal, for its part, saw its revenue almost double in the space of one year thanks to e-commerce.
'In actual fact, anyone can become a 3PL in specific e-commerce sectors, as this is a fledgling sector with an enormous potential for growth,' concludes Jean-Marie Becker.
Dare to believe in cooperation
For many years, cooperation between hauliers was taboo in the sector. All too often, carriers viewed their counterparts as a threat rather than an opportunity. Yet certain forms of cooperation have enormous potential. Especially now the Viapass mileage-based vehicle tax is looming large on the horizon...
Jean-Marie Becker is convinced that the impending introduction of the Belgian mileage-based vehicle tax will encourage more cooperation among Belgian hauliers. 'It's actually astonishing that people didn't start putting their heads together earlier and more often,' he continues.
No-one can go it alone
Becker sees opportunities for cooperation at various levels: between colleagues active in the same sector, but also between companies from the same region. And European networks are trailblazers when it comes to such collaboration. That includes Astre, Big Move, Pallet and others. These networks were born of the realisation that it is not possible for hauliers to master everything to perfection. If you are active at European level in particular, you cannot have an equally strong presence everywhere.
'Colleagues can plug that gap and increase the level of service provided by your company, whilst also improving their own quality level. Cooperation is the key to being able to provide for customers any time, anywhere,' says Jean-Marie Becker.
Sometimes, seeking opportunities for cooperation may go hand in hand with striving to improve quality. RoadSpirit is a prime example of this. This is a Belgian group made up of family firms in the transport and logistics sector who aim to achieve economies of scale in as many areas as possible by pooling their resources.
Mileage-based vehicle tax to affect transport and logistics
The Viapass vehicle tax will not be without consequences for the Belgian transport sector. However, it remains to be seen whether this new tax will have the effect intended by the government. For hauliers, the mileage-based vehicle tax will certainly result in increased costs, some or all of which will have to be passed on to customers.
This will result in rapid changes to the face of the sector.
'At the moment, everyone is busy doing their calculations. How much will the mileage-based vehicle tax cost hauliers? What share of those costs are a result of empty kilometres or kilometres racked up on the way to picking up goods? What share of those costs will it actually be possible to pass on? And they are certainly already thinking about how and when these extra costs will have to be negotiated with clients,' warns Jean-Marie Becker.
Whatever happens: the sector is trying its utmost to arm itself against what is to come, and is therefore on the lookout for solutions to reduce the number of empty kilometres to a minimum. This may be done through collaboration with other carriers, but also through strategic acquisitions.
Absorbing own transport
Another potential consequence of the mileage-based vehicle tax is that many companies who currently transport their own products may no longer regard this as a profitable exercise. And this brings with it an opportunity for professional goods transporters, who can grab the chance to gain extra custom. Extra custom that may help them to compensate for their own empty kilometres.
'And this is not an original idea, by the way. When the transport landscape changed in Switzerland – the first country to introduce a mileage-based vehicle tax – you saw a clear shift from own transport to third-party transport,' stresses Jean-Marie Becker.
The future is bright for Belgian family transport firms
There are many latent threats to road transport and logistics in Belgium. Does the sector still have a future? Belgian family firms certainly do!
Family firms are often in a stronger position than they think. As they are run by people with a real personal stake in the company's equity, such businesses often pursue a long-term strategy. No sign of speculative strategies from equity funds that may cause instability. And no decisions from managers on the basis of the effect they may have on annual bonuses, but instead a long-term strategy aimed at the successful continuity of the company.
Big or small?
It is of little relevance whether the company is big or small. In fact, there is no such thing as a generic critical mass. The specific critical mass of a company depends on its activities and profitability. However, certain trends cannot be ignored. For example, shipping companies are trying to work together with fewer partners.
'But the real question is what the benefits are, and whether carriers really need to enter into such arrangements. A vehicle fleet of 100 trucks is not necessarily better than a fleet of 70. Transport operators must think very carefully about that. First and foremost, it is a question of what they want themselves. What future they see for their company,' says Jean-Marie Becker, CEO of MMM Business Media.
Factors that may play a decisive role are whether or not there are successors to take on the company, whether an operator is prepared to take risks in order to grow, and whether they think it is all worth dedicating their lives to, day and night.
Flexible family firms
One of the strong points of family firms is their flexibility, which allows the strengths of a small business to be combined with those of a larger company. Healthy family firms have all the necessary resources in-house to be able to respond to tenders. And these are of crucial importance in the modern transport and logistics sector.
However, family firms should not lose sight of the importance of management tasks. Family firms certainly like to push themselves to the limits of their capabilities. When a company gets too big for the family to handle, however, it may be advisable to hire in an external manager to ensure all management functions are performed professionally.
'Van Moer Logistics is a prime example. Manager Jo Van Moer realised a few years ago that his company had grown too large for him to continue managing it himself. That is why he hired Eric Noterman, CEO of a large firm, to set his company on the path to growth. In this way, Jo Van Moer lifted an obstacle that may have impeded the further growth of his company,' opines Jean-Marie Becker.
Family firms who have their affairs well in order are not only able to stand up to bigger competitors and grow to become a solid 3PL provider, but can also look optimistically to the future in spite of factors such as the mileage-based vehicle tax, re-flagging, 'Code 095' driver training, new rules of play on weights and dimensions and predicted technological trends, such as the arrival of increasingly networked and even self-driving trucks.