Companies working with several currencies often want to avoid exchange rate risks and administrative hassle. That is why the bank has come up with a behind-the-scenes solution: the 'embedded FX' service.
Embedded FX? You don't even need to remember the name, because the system works automatically, without you even having to think about it. FX doesn't stand for Hollywood-style special effects, but for Foreign Exchange, sometimes referred to as Cross Currency. You are guaranteed to come across this at some point if you make international payments, since they are not always executed in the currency of the debit account (referred to as 'mono-currency payments'). Sometimes, the currencies of the accounts the payment is being debited from or credited to may not be the same. These are FX payments. During such payments, an exchange takes place: one currency is sold and another bought, without you having to lift a finger.
The volumes on the FX market might be greater than you'd think. To put it plainly: they are enormous. Every day, more than 5 trillion American dollars are traded. That is 5000 billion American dollars, more than the volume involved in global equities trading...in a single day. The FX market operates day and night, and only closes over the weekend from 10 pm on Friday until 10 pm on Sunday.
Wim Grosemans (Head of Product Management Payments and Receivables at the BNP Paribas Cash Management Competence Center):
'On the FX market, banks essentially play the role of a wholesaler: they buy and sell currencies on the international market, and then sell them on to the customer with a mark-up. BNP Paribas is one of the biggest players, ranking among the global top ten. There is no official market rate in this over-the-counter market. Each bank determines the rate at which it wants to buy and sell currencies itself. Unofficial market rates can be found in publications from a number of public institutions (such as the European Central Bank) and private organisations (Reuters, Bloomberg etc.). These are based on the average rate offered by a number of major banks.'
The rate is always determined per currency pair, for example the euro versus the American dollar: EUR/USD = 1.1119. The most traded pair is EUR/USD, which represents 25% of daily trade. Second on the list is the pair American dollar/Japanese yen
(USD/JPY) with 18%, with British pound/American dollar (GBP/USD) coming in third at 9%.
Alwin Vande Loock (Product Marketing Manager Payments and Receivables at the BNP Paribas Cash Management Competence Center):
'As for the rate, banks offer a number of options. The rate can be a live market rate that is continuously being updated. The EUR/USD rate, for example, is adjusted more than 50 times per second. Another option is a daily rate. In this case, a rate is offered that will apply for a certain period.'
For many companies, all of this hassle with exchange rates is a real headache. Too complex, too expensive in terms of administrative costs and too many exchange rate risks. For those customers, banks have a solution: embedded FX.
Wim Grosemans (Head of Product Management Payments and Receivables at the BNP Paribas Cash Management Competence Center):
'When you make a payment in a currency you do not hold an account in, the bank will immediately retrieve a good exchange rate from its colleagues in the dealing room of the Global Markets department. The rate is usually confirmed within one hour after the customer has sent the payment. Unless large amounts are being transferred, the entire process is automatic. The IT systems used are much more efficient than they were just a few years ago, meaning that the bank is less exposed to volatility and can offer its customers a competitive rate. Embedded FX is an efficient and simple alternative for anyone who doesn't want to hold accounts in different currencies and run the exchange rate risks that entails. For the customer, it no longer matters what currency they use: the process is exactly the same. What's more, it gives them peace of mind, because they know that they'll always get a great rate.'
1 in 200 international payments go wrong somewhere along the line
A quiet groan or a deep sigh in the finance department? Probably yet another international payment gone south. What exactly can go wrong?
Making payments is never easy, but international payments can sometimes be a real pain. Payments in euros and in the SEPA zone usually go off without a hitch.
However, many companies regularly experience problems when making payments to countries outside the SEPA zone. What's more, finding a solution is often tedious and time-consuming. There is also an impression that international payments are shrouded in secrecy. The amount enters the system, and eventually comes out the other side. But the lead times, costs and payment dates used are often not clear enough or difficult to predict.
This impression held by companies is partially correct, explains Wim Grosemans (Head of Product Management International Payments at the BNP Paribas Cash Management Competence Center).
'SWIFT data shows us that almost 1 in 200 international payments get stuck somewhere along the line. These little hitches are then discussed and investigated by the banks. This can result in frozen payments, queries, uncertainties and rectifications, among other things. The consequences for businesses vary. For instance, unexpected costs may be skimmed off along the way, meaning that the amount received by the beneficiary is lower than intended. Other problems include payments that arrive later than expected or that are even sent back.'
So what is the reason behind these errors? There are in fact several. In Europe, we are lucky enough to have SEPA harmonisation: for payments in euros, all you need to provide is the IBAN and the name of the beneficiary. Outside the SEPA zone, it is still a real jungle of currencies and specifications. In addition, you have to respect the laws and regulations of the country in which the payment is executed, the country that is the final destination of the funds and any potential stopover countries.
Alwin Vande Loock (Senior Product Manager International Payments at the BNP Paribas Cash Management Competence Center) sums up a few of the potential stumbling blocks.
'Sometimes, certain requirements have to be met in order to be able to route the payment through the local clearing system, for example the CNAPS code for payments in yuan in China or the Fedwire code for payments in American dollars. Another problem is that not all countries use the IBAN account format. For instance: when making payments to Mexico, you have to use the CLABE format. In many countries, account numbers don't even have a set structure and there is no check digit like we have here: if you enter one incorrect digit you're already in trouble, and you don't even receive a warning. Sometimes, you also have to provide very specific information about the beneficiary, such as the tax code for payments in Russian roubles to Russia. There are many steps at which things can go wrong, usually those that are still performed manually.'
Another aspect you need to bear in mind is compliance. For legal and ethical reasons, banks must be (and want to be) 100% sure that funds are not of suspicious origin or destination, and that they are not in breach of embargos and financial sanctions. A number of countries are regarded as high-risk in that respect. During compliance checks, all transactions are passed through several filters upon reaching each intermediate banker and each clearing system. This means, for example, that payments with only an invoice number and missing a detailed description risk getting caught up in those filters for longer. The same also applies to payments where the beneficiary information is incomplete, for instance.
Do you have any problems?
Contact your relationship manager or contact person at Cash Management. Or get in touch with the help desk.
Easy Banking business
Tel. + 32 2 565 05 00
E-mail: PC banking Business Help Desk // firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel. +32 2 565 28 34
E-mail: Isabel Customer Support // email@example.com
Top 3 errors in international payments
The IBAN format is not used in countries where this is mandatory.
The clearing code is not provided, is in the wrong format or is not entered in the correct field. The clearing code is used in many countries that don't use the IBAN format (Fedwire for the US, CNAPS for China, BSB for New Zealand etc.).
The purpose of the payment is not described clearly enough. Only providing an invoice number or using unclear abbreviations can result in queries from one of the banks concerned as well as delays, especially in countries under embargo.
Everything you ever wanted to know about international payments
From Albania to Zambia: the BNP Paribas Currency Guide contains everything you ever wanted to know (and more) about international payments in 132 currencies.
At 420 pages long, it's quite a hefty tome to keep on your desk. Fortunately, the BNP Paribas Currency Guide is also available online. For the most recent version, click here. The guide is produced by the Cash Management Competence Center. As the head of Product Management Cash Management at BNP Paribas Fortis, Jo Germeys is very familiar with the concerns of Belgian entrepreneurs and organisations. Which is why they find this guide a useful tool.
'We try and keep our customers informed about changes in legislation or the banking world. However, companies often have so much to think about that the message doesn't always stick. This is usually not a major problem, but it does increase the risk of errors, delays and extra costs. That is why the Currency Guide is an excellent tool.'
In the past, an abridged version of this guide was available for the most common currencies, but the latest version is exhaustive, listing every currency and its associated regulations in alphabetical order. A two-page overview of each currency is provided. First of all, this overview contains clear currency guidelines. For example, that for payments in Canadian dollars you have to give not only an invoice number but also a clear description, in English, of the type of payment; for example, 'payment of travel expenses'. In addition to this standard information, the guide also explains that the IBAN format is not used in Canada. In this case, it is mandatory that you provide a full address and a nine-digit CC code. The first four digits represent the routing number, and the last five the transit number of the bank. Subsequently, there is also an explanation of how the payment must be formatted.
Alwin Vande Loock (Senior Product Manager International Payments at the BNP Paribas Cash Management Competence Center):
'Most businesses only work with a few currencies, so it's not too hard to read up on those currencies in detail and make the necessary adjustments. ERP packages are often set up in such a way that you enter the same details for all countries, and that doesn't always work.'
The five golden rules of international payments
- Write everything in full
Don't use initials or abbreviations in the name or address of the beneficiary.
- Provide complete information
Clearly state the purpose of your payment. You can do this by way of a description written in English, a code indicating the reason for the payment or a combination of the two. An invoice number alone is not sufficient.
- Use (or don't use) the IBAN format
Use the IBAN format where necessary. This is the case for example when making payments in Albanian lek (ALL) or in Swiss francs (CHF). In Australia, the IBAN format is not in use. There, you have to indicate the BSB (Bank State Branch) code and the BIC (Bank Identification Code).
- Use English (and the Latin alphabet)
Write any information in English using the Latin alphabet. Don't use the beneficiary's language or your own language.
- Mind the decimals
The majority of currencies accept two decimal places (numbers after the decimal point). There are some exceptions: the Chilean peso (CLP) and the Indonesian rupiah (IDR), for example, do not use decimal places.
International payments: go with the processing flow
What goes on behind the scenes when an international payment is made? We reveal all and demonstrate the various processing stages.
Better understanding results in fewer errors. Here you will find an animated film explaining the basics of international payments.
Let's look at the four steps in the processing of an international payment
1. The customer sends the payment order to the bank
The payment order is sent to the bank via an online banking system (e-banking) or a bulk upload system, in other words a file containing a large number of payments.
- Banks have their own internal e-banking systems (such as Easy Banking Business at BNP Paribas Fortis), but there are also systems that can communicate with multiple banks, such as SWIFTNet and Isabel.
- A limited number of corporates and public institutions can send large volumes of payments to the bank directly from their own ERP systems via bulk upload (sometimes referred to as 'host-to-host').
Remember to provide all the necessary information in the payment request. For transactions outside the SEPA zone, specific rules often apply. A few typical examples:
Not sure what you're doing? Check the Currency Guide here for information on all currencies.
2. The bank validates the input and sets the payment in motion
The bank performs the necessary compliance checks. The bank has an obligation to carry out a number of checks, for example in order to prevent payments being sent to countries under embargo or to people/entities subject to financial sanctions. The EU, the US, the UN and individual countries have such embargo lists.
3. The bank chooses the appropriate routing for executing the payment
For payments in EUR in the SEPA zone, agreed clearing systems are used. Elsewhere in the world, there is no system that is able to connect with any bank in any currency. That makes things complicated, as your banker must find correspondent bankers to ensure the money is received by the final beneficiary. Banks usually have one or several correspondents in each country for the currencies they allow payments in. Matching them with one another for every payment is no small feat. When that has been done, the money can subsequently pass through each of those banks. Your bank will determine the optimal routing on the basis of a number of criteria. These are the main ones:
For payments between accounts held with the same bank. This is an accounting movement, whereby the money does not leave the bank.
The daily transaction volumes between banks are enormous. They are processed in clearing systems. These systems process payments on a 'net basis': all incoming and outgoing payments are listed per bank, and then the net amount to be paid or received ('settled') is calculated for each bank in question. This process takes place multiple times a day. This is called 'net settlement'. Depending on the clearing system, there is usually a focus on either large, relatively urgent amounts or greater numbers of smaller, less urgent transactions.
- ‘Correspondent banking’
The actual settlement can only take place in the country to which the currency belongs, i.e. via a local clearing system. Often, one of the two banks involved is not connected to the clearing system of the third country. In this case, direct routing to this system is not possible.
The solution? A 'correspondent bank' that does have access to the local clearing system. Many banks have a worldwide network of such correspondent banks. They hold accounts with them (called 'nostro' accounts) via which they can route payments. The correspondent bankers then settle the amounts so that the beneficiary bank receives the money and can pay the final beneficiary.
4. The customer receives the details of the payment
The entire process concludes with reporting: the customer sees all credit and debit information on their bank statements.
Watch out for 'restricted' currencies
Only convertible currencies can be used to make international payments. Some currencies are 'restricted': this means that in accordance with local legislation, these currencies are not permitted to leave the country. As such, it is not possible to open an account in Belgium in this currency or to use it to make international payments.
An example of a 'restricted' currency is the BRL, the Brazilian real. Banks have a workaround for this problem. They conclude an agreement with a correspondent who does have access to the currency. They send the equivalent value in EUR or USD, convert the amount into the local currency in the country (in this case BRL), and forward that amount to the beneficiary.
What is SWIFT?
To ensure routing is successful, banks communicate with one another via the SWIFT network (Society for Worldwide Financial Communication). SWIFT is owned by financial organisations worldwide. There is a specific standard for each form of communication, for example MT 101, MT 202, etc. In the case of SWIFT, a specific address is also required: the BIC (Bank Identification Code).
Working capital: far more than just an accounting term
Working capital, also known as net operating capital, presents a picture of the operational liquidity of a business. But there is more to it than meets the eye.
The success of a business actually depends to a significant extent on how it deals with its working capital needs.
The difference between working capital and working capital needs
Within the financial analysis, working capital is just one of the indicators that present a picture of the operational liquidity of a business. It not only affects general management, but also the access to bank credit or the valuation of the business, for example. This is calculated as follows:
Equity capital and other resources in the long term - fixed assets
This allows you to see whether sufficient long-term funds are available to finance the production chain. Where there is a positive result that is indeed the case, whereas with a negative result it is actually the production chain that must safeguard the long-term financing.
It is therefore useful to calculate the working capital needs as well:
Current assets (excluding cash) - current liabilities (excluding financial liabilities)
The result shows the amount the business needs in order to finance its production chain, and may be both positive and negative:
- where working capital needs are positive, the commercial debts no longer cover the short-term assets (excluding the financial). In that case, a business can rely on its working capital. If this is insufficient, it will need additional financing for its operational cycle in the short term;
- where working capital needs are negative, a business can meet its short-term liabilities without any problem. Nevertheless, it is advisable to reduce working capital needs (further).
In short, working capital presents a picture of the operational liquidity of a business, whereas working capital needs represent the amount the business needs in order to finance its production chain.
In other words, it boils down to limiting working capital needs as far as possible, thus increasing liquidity. This is crucial, especially in times of economic or financial difficulty. After all, customers tend to pay later then, while your stocks are increasing and your suppliers are imposing stricter payment terms. As a result, more and more working capital gets 'frozen' in your operating cycle, precisely when circumstances make it more difficult to attract additional financing.
Optimising working capital is not only a question of long-term considerations. In the short term, too, the business can release cash that is not being used optimally, or is being used unnecessarily, more specifically in the purchasing, production and sales processes within the operating cycle.
The working capital and the working capital needs must, above all, be geared effectively to each other. The working capital needs must be structurally less than the working capital itself, preferably with an extra buffer. However, there is no mathematical truth regarding the amount of working capital and working capital needs. Sector, activity and business model can affect this, for example.